Seismic Geometric Decomposition (SGD)

Seismic Geometric Decomposition (SGD) is an exclusive technique that captures the internal architecture of the seismic reflectors to produce a series of high definition seismic volumes that can be used to improve the delineation of the Fault System, the external and internal reservoir architecture and to recognize reflectivity patterns for geomorphological analysis. Standard interpretation workflows for Structural and Stratigraphic analysis can later be applied by using the new generated seismic vintages.

The SGD technology has been successfully proven in several basins and different depositional environments around the world. It has helped to better understand the lateral and vertical complexities of the reservoirs and to improve both well positioning and production efficiency.

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Seismic Geometric Decomposition (SGD) provides a perfect complement to optimize any industry standard reservoir characterization workflow.

  • More detailed seismic interpretations
  • High definition Fault Mapping
  • Unique volumes for seismic pattern analysis
  • Seismic versions that optimize the generation of rock property volumes and seismic facies classification
  • SGD can be applied to volumes in Time or Depth, as well as to Seismic in 2D or 3D

Optimized Reservoir Characterizations

The SGD processing (Seismic Geometric Decomposition) breaks the seismic trace into different geometric components (pseudo traces) honouring two fundamental parameters of the native seismic trace, its onset (peaks and troughs) and phase.

The amplitude is qualitatively preserved. In this way, it is possible to independently generate a variety of seismic versions with different dominant frequencies.

These new seismic versions can be used as input to standard workflows for fault detection, to fine tune interpretations or for the generation of high resolution pseudo petrophysical volumes.

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The SGD Volume , recovers the internal geometry variations of the original seismic reflectors. The result is a new volume with higher detail for recognizing stratigraphic features and for enhancing subtle faulting. Mainly used for fine tuning the structural and stratigraphic interpretation. It is a seismic attribute that improves the quality of the seismic in general terms, reducing the random noise and increasing the reflector continuity.  The Strata Volume can be  used to build more robust structural frameworks.

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Pattern Recognition Analysis

Pattern reflectivity analysis can provide valuable information to understand the reservoir stratigraphic framework.

Higher resolution SGD Volumes help to identify seismic stratigraphic features related to depositional  environments.

The input seismic (top) is  processed to generate a Seismic Enhanced version at dominant frequency (center)  shown as a red trace on the well track. Lateral continuity and vertical resolution has been improved.

More detailed is provided (Strata Volume) to delineate both, the external geometry and the internal reservoir architecture (bottom) in which lateral truncations and erosive surfaces are clearly depicted.

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A very noisy and discontinuous seismic is processed to generate a Seismic Bedding volume that captures the vertical and lateral reflectivity pattern of a turbidite system. Internal geometries can be delineated along with , truncations and lateral terminations. This seismic attribute can be used to improve the lateral correlation of main units within the window of interest.

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The image on the left shows a vertical section that compares a low resolution seismic to the SGD Volume with enhanced resolution. A reflectivity pattern analysis is carried out to laterally delineate distinctive mounded features within the productive window (green surfaces). The seismic enhanced version is treated with a black and grey color to highlight the lateral truncations against what is thought to be a series of organic build ups on the verge of a carbonate platform.

Highly Detailed Fault Mapping

Structural segmentation and Facies architecture define the reservoir heterogeneity and control the  drainage capability.  The correct delineation of subtle faulting can substantially improve  the understanding of the reservoir´s dynamic behaviour and optimize well drilling locations.

Detailed 3D fault framework generation can lead to better characterizations of  the stress fields , to optimize  geomechanic evaluations, drilling and fracturing operations.

SGD Volumes provide an optimum  framework to support the generation of  highly detailed fault mapping.

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High resolution fault framework generation for a natural fractured carbonate reservoir.  The delineation of reservoir boundaries and segmentation is improved when using Higher resolution SGD volumes as input to the process. The two fault horizon slices are overlaid for comparison (right), notice that fault trends from seismic original volume are honored by the process.

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High Resolution Acoustic Impedance HRZp

Seismic Geometric Decomposition volumes  can be used as input to workflows to generate rock property volumes such as acoustic impedances and porosities.

High resolution acoustic impedance (HRZp) workflow allows for the optimal vertical and lateral delineation of P-impedance.

P-impedance volumes along with Porosity logs are used to generate porosity volumes via the application of Neural Nets or Multi attribute regression analysis.

High resolution rock property volumes help to improve volumetric calculations.

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SGD workflows are applied to a low resolution seismic (top left) to characterize a very complex devonian carbonate platform, the original seismic lacks the enough resolution to vertically solve for individual packages within the reservoir window. A seismic inversion from the original seismic had failed to capture the high lateral stratigraphic heterogeneity (top right). The original seismic is Geometrically Decomposed  (bottom left) to run the HRZp workflows. The result is a new P-impedance volume (bottom right) that captures the vertical and lateral variations of the reservoir window, as it is observed from the match between Zp logs and acoustic impedance volume.

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